Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo. Informe sobre desarrollo humano en Venezuela. Caracas: Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo; Feo-Isturiz O. Informe sobre desarrollo humano global. Interactions between global proceses and local health problems. A human ecology approach to health among indigenous groups in the Amazon.
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Globalization and infectious diseases. A review of linkages. Geneva: World Health Organization; Aublin L.
In: Crespo LA, editor. Humanistas franceses en la selva venezolana. Black FL. CEA, organizadores. Rio de Janeiro: Editora Fiocruz; Anderson R, May R. Infectious diseases of humans. Oxford: Oxford University Press; Yarzabal L, Layrisse M.
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Building social protection floors and comprehensive social security systems
Caracas: Edicanpa; Botto C. Iglesia en Amazonas ; Cook G. Manson's tropical diseases. London: WB Saunders; Cunill-Grau P. Gadelha P. Conforming strategies of public health campaigns to disease specificity and national contexts: Rockefeller Foundation's early campaigns against hookworm and malaria in Brazil. Parassitologia ; Birn AE. Erradication, control or neither? Hookworm vs malaria strategies and Rockefeller Public Health in Mexico.
Packard RM. The first large area in the tropical zone to report malaria eradication: North Central Venezuela. Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 3: Almeida C.
Blas E, Hearst N. Health Policy Plan ; 17 Suppl Brundtland GH. The World Health Report reducing risks, promoting healthy life. Environment, cultural change and public health in the venezuelan amazonas. Freire G. Piaroa enviroment and society in transition. Oxford: University of Oxford; Santana-Nazoa A. Caracas: Universidad Central de Venezuela; Niveles de pobreza y manejo del ambiente en la Orinoquia venezolana. In: Escobar G, editor. CEA, editores. The situation that emerges from IFAD-funded projects is that participation by the population was mostly limited to being informed, without any real involvement on their part in management decisions.
This means that IFAD's next programme in Rwanda must place particular emphasis on fostering participation by beneficiaries with a view to obtaining quantitatively and qualitatively observable results. This will require a joint and balanced effort from the population, project officers and the various levels of local authorities. To this end, the development of individual and collective skills to enhance the population's ability to understand specific needs is not only appropriate, but a prerequisite in various rural facilitation methods. Beneficiary targeting methods.
IFAD-supported projects definitely show a clear concern to reach the rural poor. While no systematic technique to target the poor was applied, the management of projects and methods used to target and identify beneficiary groups allowed poor households to take part in and benefit from IFAD interventions. However, data heretofore produced from the projects do not make it possible to quantify their relative importance to all of the beneficiaries. Use of these indicators would provide information to the projects during execution as to whether target groups identified in the design stage have effectively been reached, and also allow for measurement of the beneficiaries' progress throughout the project.
The urgent need to develop basic infrastructure needed to provide services to communities settling in newly opened territories to receive returnees, in large part explains this particular concern shared by the two projects.
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In IFAD's other projects, decentralization becomes mainly a question of redefining partnerships, with decentralized authorities becoming an additional contact for them. This means that IFAD must determine, jointly with the Government of Rwanda, the place that these new authorities will have in its project development and management processes. Such an approach would help project activities fit in better with local development plans sectors, cells and districts and could facilitate more direct, effective and efficient participation by beneficiaries in their management.
The analysis presented in the evaluation report identified a number of observations and opportunities for future measures to improve IFAD's overall programme performance in Rwanda. The observations and recommendations are addressed to various key partners in the cooperation programme, and are presented in chapter IX of this report, with a view to add to the thought process being initiated on development of the upcoming IFAD COSOP with Rwanda. A first group of findings and recommendations identify constraints to and opportunities for improvement of the Rwanda programme's performance.
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A second group of findings and recommendations concern improving the management of projects, and is addressed to various groups of partners under the programme. Of particular note is the need for a clarification of roles and a greater involvement on IFAD's part in supervision and implementation support for its projects and programme; the need to improve the participative nature of the projects and increase the sense of ownership of the latter and their results in IFAD partners, including the end beneficiaries in the field and, finally; the need to review, simplify and coordinate administrative and financial project management procedures.
Estos proyectos implicaron un costo total de USD ,5 millones, de los cuales aproximadamente USD ,4 millones corresponden a recursos aportados por el Fondo. De esta manera, la pertinencia y relevancia de los objetivos de los proyectos con respecto a las estrategias nacionales y del Fondo es satisfactoria.
Los efectos de los proyectos. Sin embargo, los criterios utilizados para seleccionar las poblaciones-objetivo, no son claros y tampoco son satisfactorios. El impacto sobre la pobreza rural. Existen serias dudas sobre la perspectiva de sostenibilidad de los impactos de los proyectos ya terminados La gerencia de los proyectos. Aspectos institucionales. Este es un elemento clave de todos los proyectos financiados por el FIDA que ha evolucionado con el tiempo.
El Fondo tiene poca visibilidad y reconocimiento insuficiente en ciertos niveles altos de Gobierno, donde se toman decisiones importantes de estrategia sobre desarrollo rural y combate a la pobreza. Las instituciones cooperantes. La sociedad civil.
Política y violencia perpetua en El Salvador
Ya se ha notado el papel proactivo y positivo de los proyectos en cuanto a las organizaciones de base. El FIDA. Sin minimizar la importancia y la realidad del avance logrado por muchos beneficiarios en el contexto de los proyectos, se pueden plantear grandes dudas sobre la sostenibilidad de las actividades de los proyectos, especialmente en lo que se refiere a actividades generadoras de ingresos para los productores pobres.
Es un reconocimiento formidable de la credibilidad moral del Fondo en el campo de la lucha contra la pobreza en las zonas rurales. El Sr. Rationale and background. It ranks third, after China and India, in terms of the total amount of the resources borrowed. This CPE covers all projects that became effective from to The latter includes various co-financiers and the Government. As at 31 December , five of the nine projects were on-going.
Evaluation approach. The overall goal set for the CPE was to learn, together with partners, from past experiences in Bangladesh and improve the future performance of this country programme. The specific objective was to assess results and impact of IFAD strategies and operations in Bangladesh between Current OE guidelines for CPEs were used as a framework and followed throughout the implementation of the evaluation. The strategic dimension covers the design of the country strategy and the design of the programme put into place to realize that strategy.
The criteria used were relevance and coherence. The operational dimension covers the performance of the programme, including the performance of the projects, the performance of IFAD and the performance of partners. The basic criteria used were effectiveness, efficiency and impact. In addition, the overarching criteria of sustainability , innovation , replication and impact on gender were applied to the evaluation of the operational dimension. The programme is rated on selected criteria in order to summarise the analysis and standardise evaluation findings for future comparison with evaluations of other IFAD country programmes.
The evaluation process began in October with a review of documentation, followed by a preparatory mission to Bangladesh to consult with partners and establish a Core Learning Partnership CLP to guide the evaluation. An Approach Paper, circulated to partners, documented the evaluation process.
The methodology described in that Paper consisted of: i the OE review of all available reports and documentation; ii individual assessments of each project covered by the evaluation, including self-assessments by the on-going projects; and iii fielding of an Evaluation Team 1 to verify preliminary conclusions and findings. From these activities and sources, the Evaluation Team sought qualitative and quantitative evidence to indicate how well the programme met the selected evaluation criteria.