In the s, the government helped thousands of British people start a new life in New Zealand. Railways were built and towns sprang up or expanded.
From Charitable Volunteers to Architects of Social Welfare: A Brief History of Social Work
In , the first shipment of frozen meat from New Zealand made it successfully to England. We were also increasingly conscious of our own nationalism. In , we declined the chance to join the Australian Federation. Instead, New Zealand became an independent 'dominion' in The landing at Gallipoli in Turkey is regarded as a coming of age for our country. ANZAC Day, commemorating the Gallipoli landing, is a public holiday on April 25 each year and is marked with increasingly well-attended ceremonies.
With the bulk of our forces effectively stranded in Egypt and the Middle East, it was the United States that protected New Zealand against Japan during the war in the Pacific. Keeping on side with America encouraged New Zealand to fight in Korea in the s and - against much popular opposition - in Vietnam in the s.
PEOPLE AND THE WAR
When Britain joined the European Economic Community in , New Zealand had already begun diversifying its export trade. Losing such an important and assured market for our farm products was a blow. That event has encouraged New Zealand to widen its outlook. We now sell our farm goods and many other exports to a wide range of countries. Culturally, we have also become more diverse. Particularly from the s, a wide range of ethnic groups have been encouraged to settle here and New Zealand is now much more multicultural.
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NZ Ready planning tool NZ Ready is a free online tool to help you plan your move to New Zealand, ensuring you know how things work here and have a hassle-free move. Live in New Zealand. Victor Morse, whose inebriation and womanizing lead Claude to think of him as "a sort of debauched baby" , could serve as poster boy for bad behavior, while Claude more closely represents the official ideal, and one can evaluate each man's moral stance by judging his recreational habits, particularly those involving women. Though he listens to Victor's instruction on "dodging the guard, [and] getting into scrapes with women and getting out again" , Claude remains untainted, refusing Victor's invitation to accompany him "in quest of amorous adventure" Instead, Claude prefers the chaste intimacy of visiting Mademoiselle Olive de Courcy of the French Red Cross in a convent garden: "Two people could hardly give each other more if they were together for years, he thought" Claude is not an asexual prude.
When Cather limns out her protagonist, she inscribes a balanced account of Claude's sexuality. Cather tells readers that Claude is "a boy with strong impulses," yet he retains "a sharp disgust for sensuality" Claude desires females and is desired by them, and as an officer, he does not impose inordinate moral rectitude on the men in his command although he is aware of their having transgressed army demands for sexual forbearance. Army orders stated, "Commanding officers will urge continence on all men of their commands as their duty as soldiers" and, as lieutenant of his company, Claude was obligated to compel "sexual abstinence at the front" U.
While occupying the French town of Beaufort, Claude's men encounter a willing female populace, and although Claude realizes that "a good deal was going on," he deliberately refrains from interfering beyond lecturing "his men at parade" Though Cather shows the degree of vexation that his decision to turn a blind eye toward his men's amorous sprees causes Claude, his willingness to wink at his men's behavior places Claude on middle ground between the licentiousness of Victor Morse and the straightlaced moral rectitude of official army policy.
At other times the author's droll tone indicates that Cather did not fully share Pershing's preoccupation with sexual probity. For instance, as Claude travels home on leave from training camp, he peruses "a French phrase-book made up of sentences chosen for their usefulness to soldiers,—such as; 'Non, jamais je ne regarde les femmes' " The laughably absolute chastity implied by the phrase suggests that Cather considered the extent of army concern over soldiers' sex lives a little silly.
In substituting wholesome activities for other, morally suspect forms of recreation, the army appropriated the practices of the recreation movement to focus on the troublesome problem of venereal disease: "Athletics and amusements [were to] be used to the fullest extent in furthering the practice of continence" in addition to instruction and drill U. This is not to say, however, that combating sexually transmitted diseases was the only boon that the army saw in employing recreation. Soldiers needed rest and relaxation to restore fighting vigor.
The pragmatic employment of play and recreation to maintain troop efficiency contributed to military effectiveness, with life and death consequences. Army officers were urged: "Keep track of the prevalence of colds, sore throats and of depressed health or spirits of any kind among your men. Use every endeavor to prevent exhaustion in marching, drilling and labor of all kinds by judicious use of rest and amusement" Such uses of recreation by the AEF align with recreation movement notions of the power of play to effect "the invigoration of American life through the wholesome use of leisure hours" "Play Makes Men".
In turn, the whole-hearted adoption of recreational practices by the military provided two benefits to the recreation movement. First, the incorporation of recreation and amusement into the army's day-to-day operation offered a unique opportunity to verify the value of play in a wide-ranging, if unscientifically monitored, laboratory. Second, to accustom thousands of young American troops with the frequent and systematic practice of play within an officially sanctioned occupation must have gone far toward expanding the demand for recreational experiences upon their return to civilian America.
If in writing One of Ours Cather privileges private and impromptu recreational moments over officially organized activities, she may do so because her protagonist remains suspicious of army attempts to enforce morality. Victor Morse sneers at American soldiers in London who never see the city because "they sit in a Y hut and write to their Pollyannas" To soldiers, the quasi-official status of YMCA secretaries as uniformed "militarized civilians" was "a matter of considerable perplexity" in the war zone U.
Army, Reports , and the sight of these personnel must have reminded Claude of his insipid landlord in Lincoln: "Edward Chapin was a man of twenty-six, with an old, wasted face," who was "studying for the ministry" and "did secretarial work for the college and for the Young Men's Christian Association" For Claude, whose dislike of the parasitic Brother Weldon and any others whose "Faith" he viewed as "a substitute for most of the manly qualities he admired" 50 , the army's endorsement of YMCA "amusement and recreation by means of its usual program of social, educational, physical, and religious activities" U.
Army, Reports must have been particularly irksome.
Given his antipathy toward those in charge of conducting official recreation, it should come as no surprise that Claude Wheeler creates his own recreational moments. Instead of watching a boxing match, Claude prefers the solitary recreation of walking in "the big wood that had tempted him ever since his arrival" Instead of watching a movie show, Claude seeks out intimate conversation with a French woman.
Instead of joining his men at "the dance in the square" , Claude meanders through the night-shrouded Beaufort church yard. It is in these quiet moments of his own choosing that Claude finds renewal of mind, body, and spirit. Wartime uses of recreation at home in the United States went beyond army training camp practices. During World War I the civilian population was mobilized across the home front to prosecute the war effort.
The distance between battle front and home front was not as great as twenty-first-century readers might assume, and this proximity can be seen not only in Cather's fiction but also in periodical literature of the day, perhaps no place better than in the Reclamation Record , which was circulated throughout the American West by the U. Bureau of Reclamation to keep farmers apprised of bureau irrigation projects.
While bureau water did not reach their farm on Lovely Creek, the Wheeler family almost certainly would have been aware of the Sweetwater project begun in on the North Platte River in Wyoming and western Nebraska "North Platte Project". Cather takes pains to show how important maps are to the Wheelers in visualizing the conflict in Europe, and, indeed, Reclamation Record readers, as early as , were shown maps of the western United States with the names of European nations superimposed upon them "to illustrate the relative areas of the countries now engaged in war as compared with the size of these Western States" "The Country of Peaceful Progress" As the United States geared up in to enter the war across the Atlantic, reclamation farmers were reminded by a slogan across the top of the Reclamation Record cover page that "every acre farm intensively cultivated will support a family and keep five men at the front" Women were also called on in significant ways to join the war effort.
In U. Interior Secretary Franklin Lane wrote: "The women of America can do no greater work at this time than to raise their own vegetables, can their own fruit, prevent waste in their homes and give impulse and enthusiasm to the men of the land. If they do this they will be doing a good 50 percent of the work of fighting the war to a finish" qtd.
source site In June Reclamation Service statistician C. Blanchard praised farmers in the manner of a military officer exhorting his troops: "The spring drive to lick the Kaiser is in full blast on our western front. Reclamation farmers. In a similarly militaristic vein, Bureau Irrigation Supervisor I. O'Donnell refers to weeds as German troops: June will be the time for their great drive, and, like the Huns, they will come in swarms. They will come in the open and from behind the trenches and over the trenches. And when you mow them down and cut off their first advance, another horde will follow up.
The weed has but one friend on earth, and that is the Kaiser.
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Do you want to help him? As more and more young men left for the war in Europe, the resulting shortages of labor created hardship for those left behind to carry on with farming. To offset this increasing burden, home front workers were cautioned to husband human resources through recreation. The August issue of Reclamation Record see fig. That rest and recreation must materially assist in this conservation of human tissue and energy" Later in the same issue, Luella Littlepage writes: The strife of nations already has taken some of the men from these new homes.
In the meantime the Government has been making heavy demands for additional farm work. Readers of the Reclamation Record were urged to fulfill their role in the war effort by keeping healthy through recreation. But there is one thing which we should all hasten to conserve while the conserving is good, and that is our health, for it is the very foundation of efficiency. Get away for a few days and "let go. Cather's descriptions of Claude's departure for Europe render the journey nearly indistinguishable from playful pastime. The train ride to Hoboken for embarkation reads like a Saturday excursion; to onlookers, the departing troop ship carries a "howling swarm of brown arms and hats and faces [that] looked like nothing but a crowd of American boys going to a football game somewhere" Sailing to war is a lark.
Lieutenant Fanning brings "a pair of white flannel pants," thinking that he might "be asked to a[n English] garden party!
FARMLAND TO FACTORIES
A band plays a three o'clock concert on deck. Cather tells us, "After long months of intensive training, the sudden drop into an idle, soothing existence was grateful to them" Such scenes and their corresponding commentary work to heighten the irony that many of these eager voyagers will never return home—some will not even reach Europe—yet Cather refuses to become facilely sardonic. For Cather's protagonist, the voyage of the Anchises turns out to be decidedly recreational: in spite of the foul weather, contagion, and death that soon overtake the ship, this sea passage provides a setting in which Claude begins to reconstruct his life.